Faith Development Theories. Given the ubiquitous influence of gender in a person's life, a number of theories have been developed to explain gender development. During adolescence, teenagers search for individual spiritual identity, spiritual meaning and purpose in life. PAULA RIENHART Explanations > Learning Theory > Fowler's Faith Stage Theory. . Erikson's social development stage that corresponds is: generativity vs stagnation. 7. The first, a four stage theory, was printed in his exceptional volume entitled Will our Children Have Faith? It means claiming a new quality of reflective autonomy and responsibility. A Congregational pastor, Temp Sparkman's offered the following developmentally-based "realities" or stages of Christian faith: Reality 1: Child of God--Sonship/Daughtership (infancy and early childhood) There is little room for personal differences dud to a strong emphasis on unity and conformity in belief and practice . This was the primary exposure to and awareness of the meaning of life which I received from my family and church during early childhood. Natural Selection In the Evolution of Religion, D. Mitra Barua on Immigrant Buddhism in the West. 3. In this week's podcast, professor Armin Geertz outlines an answer elaborating on the arguments presented in his co-authored book The Emergence and Evolution of Religion by Means of Natural Selection. The Young Adolescent (13-15) I obtained my Bachelor of Arts in Sociology from HSU, and I am currently in HSU’s Master of Liberal Arts program, emphasis in social science. They become explicit [consciously chosen] commitments rather than tacit [unexamined] commitments . * Their belief is literal. 2. Separation In this final stage we are governed by neither the authority of the community nor our own intellectual authority, but by personal union with God through free acts of the will. This content came from the Bible, curriculum materials, and what my parents, teachers, ministers, and other significant persons told me was true . * They are better able to take the perspective of other people. Their theories dealing with cognitive development, interpersonal development and community are very evident in Parks’ work. 4. Truth becomes what is right for the individual, and relationships with peers becomes increasingly important. .Here symbol and story, metaphor and myth, both from our own traditions and from others, seem to be newly appreciated . It is, in fact, a gift from that One who reveals himself.” Faith development is the process of growing and changing physically, cognitively, and emotionally in the understanding of our faith. Making Choices (ages 28-35) Stage 0: Primal or Undifferentiated faith (from birth to 2 years), is characterized by an early learning of the safety of their environment (i.e., warm, safe and secure vs hurt, neglect and abuse). Societal roles seen in terms of approved intentions and behavior; some ability to see self and others through other's eyes--empathy. 1. A New Approach to Faith Development Theory, By John Rymon Bailey, Henderson State University. Journey into the Forest of Chapter 3 Theories of Faith Development (Anthony) A Tree as a Model for a Learner (Sade) Westerhoff (Mila) Wilcox (Anthony) Tree: Individual and Mesosystem (Sade) James Fowler (Mila) Macrosystem (Kirstie) - Faith changes through life like stages of the A Place to Start “Faith Development Theory Revisited: The Religious Styles Perspective.” The. Most of this early testing was not directly related to faith . The challenge is certainly within the study of religion, spirituality, and faith. Religion must include all three elements: the institutional, the critical and the mystical. 3. It has been widely used within various contexts including pastoral care, counseling, practical theology, and in spiritual direction. Affiliative Faith Models of faith development attempt to describe the process by which individuals' perspectives on ultimate meanings and values change during the course of life. This is the utility of Streib’s work, recognizing the value of grand theory and structuring complex methodological sophistication in exploration of human experience. Initial Faith (Infancy: 0-2) Failure: Anaemic Faith An increased concern for others develops, along with an interest in fulfilling life potential. Parents can support their kids best by giving them freedom to grow. I used to think a person either had faith or did not. Such persons are devoted to overcoming division, oppression, and violence, and live in effective anticipatory response to an inbreaking commonwealth of love and justice, the reality of an inbreaking kingdom of God. .Having looked critically at traditions and translated their meanings into conceptual understandings, one experiences a hunger for a deeper relationship to the reality that symbols mediate . Certainly Streib appears to be open to socially constructed subjectivity of the individual’s experience. Taking a fundamentalist approach, Streib characterizes the child as relying on the word and guidance of a higher power. These interviews consist of twenty-five questions that review the interviewee’s relationships among his or her religious circle. 2. We must look at the stages with caution and flexibility, however, because God has this rather peculiar way of interfering with my categories and people do not always fall quite as neatly into my psycho-spiritual pigeon-holes as I might like them to do. They'll have something solid and memorable to point to when the hurricane of life gets fierce. This level of faith is expressed, at the earliest, during adolescent years. James Fowler investigated and developed a stage theory for the development of religious faith. Stage 5: Can stand outside of own society and look at it, along with other societies, critically; distinguishes between political, civic, and judicial systems; laws seen in terms of protecting human rights rather than the maintenance of society; awareness of principles "above the law"; recognition of universality of individual rights apart from societal affiliation. The goal is to develop a healthy image of God. Here we have a demand for certainty. Fowler states that “stage progression, when it occurs, involves movement toward greater complexity and comprehensiveness in each of the structural aspects. Crafting activities, even liturgies, that place kids in limbo between their old faith status and their new one. .I no longer feel as defensive about my beliefs as I did in earlier phases. . And, instead of moving in a purely linear fashion, a person is able to fluidly shift and revert back to a previous form of faith styles. FDT gives insight into spiritual and religious development using a non-sectarian approach. Heinz realized that Fowler’s descriptions had descriptive utility in how individuals structure and formalize their belief, but he also recognized that the graduated method of “stages” was empirically and culturally problematic. Stages of faith. The tasks are to celebrate the spirit-filled like and experience joy and strength in their walk with Christ. We can't save them from that. 3. In the second stage, usually during adolescence, one wrestles with doubts and begins to test the indoctrinated beliefs. Black Religious Movements and Religio-Racial Identities during the Great Migration, Scottish Charitable Incorporated Organization (SCIO), Parker, Stephen. 5. Reality 2: Child of Promise--Belonging (middle childhood through early adolescence) He suggests that at each stage, faith development is based both on cognitive abilities (as theorized by Piaget) and moral development (as theorized by Kohlberg). Language and symbolic representation enable the child to seek to determine how God can be represented in myths, icons, words of Scripture, etc. They are beginning to make life long decisions. faith development stages can inform supervisory work with spiritual and religious issues. . 4. than by personal conviction. For the past two decades the dominant model in this field has been James Fowler's theory of faith stages. Westerhoff presented two separate theories of faith development in his writings. Stage 4: Individuative-reflective Faith. Adult Faith Development Theories Faith is holistic introduction or orientation of a person mainly concerned with the person’s relationship to the immediate environment. Religion must answer this stage of growth with encouragement and guidance, fostering our imaginations and allaying our fears. The tasks are to see self as a positive spiritual being, develop self-motivation to understand God and learn about spiritual concepts, learn to trust God for guidance and support, learn to enjoy spiritual experiences such as worship, prayer and devotions, begin to love and serve others voluntarily and begin an individual personal relationship with God. The child is apprehensive in taking a stance against the higher power because questioning the deity’s power would negate the reciprocal relationship of do-ut-des. Faith and Faith Development As a part of sociological research, faith development has been virtually absent until the last 10 years (Hiebert, 1992). Young people desperately need adults with enough love and courage to believe in their future. This rudimentary faith enables us to overcome or offset the anxiety resulting from the separations that occur during infant development . 4. Sociology of Religion – and Religious Studies? But often our teenagers don't know when they've entered it, and they're hard-pressed to find their way out. .In this phase, I moved from high idealism--feeling that my newfound answers were the answers for all time and all places--to a realistic appraisal of life in which what one knows, feels, and does must be consistent with life experiences. As one person gradually displays the beliefs, values, and practices of one's family, group, or church, there is another ring formed. 8. By creating six faith stages based in cognitive, social, and ethical development, Fowler is able to gauge a person’s faith development through a linear and sequential progression. Such participation may be formalized as in membership, a rite of baptism or confirmation, or may simply be understood, as might be the case with regular participants who do not join a church. The task for the education of the adult is to help the adult to join fully with God in the work of creation. I came to feel love and security, and to understand that these persons wanted me to be like they were . Sources: Temp Sparkman, "Youth and Faith Development," Search (Spring 1985): 22-33; and Temp Sparkman, The Salvation and Nurture of the Child of God (Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: Judson Press, 1983), 32-6. Before critically reviewing the podcast, it is necessary to give a brief background on both Fowler’s and Streib’s models. Their protestations become 'whining'; being mellow becomes 'slacking'; and the struggle to find themselves becomes apathy.". His theory is strongly influenced by the theories of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, and Lawrence Kohlberg. Preserving identity and empowering women. For this reason, in the podcast, the interviewer asks Streib about the application of his modified model in modern psychology. 12. It is in his qualitative data that Streib gets at the foundation and progression of religious development. To take them by the hand and lead them into faith maturity and adulthood. Chaotic/Antisocial (Ages 1-5) Fictitious scenarios illustrate the utility of J. Despite its influence, James Fowler's theory of faith development is in need of fundamental reappraisal. As we become more conscious of this inner world, we are both attracted and frightened by it. This is a time when the mind begins to question. Stage 4--Triadic: Exclusion of those who don't accept the values of self's society; development of an ordering structure for interpersonal relationships: a societal structure composed of laws/rules/standards/sanctions. .These newly personal relations with significant others correlate with a hunger for a personal relation to God in which we feel ourselves to be known and loved in deep and comprehensive ways. For Streib, these systems of meaning were not passé or scant in any way, only different. Most of us, however, don’t remember what it was like to think like a child let alone how a child relates to God. The child will either view God as warm, sensitive, caring and loving; or as cold, non-caring and judgmental. JOHN WESTERHOFF (REVISED) By creating six faith stages based in cognitive, social, and ethical development, Fowler is able to gauge a person’s faith development through a linear and sequential progression. Kirst-Ashman and Zastrow (2004) add a 'Primal or Undifferentiated' stage prior to stage 1. Teenagers have a strong internal need to leave childhood behind and move into adulthood. 2. Spiritual Identity (Adolescence: 12-19) Failure: Spiritual Confusion Position Two teens (ninth-eleventh grades) develop a deep concern for other's viewpoints. .it comes through feelings or sensory experiences in the form of interactions with others and our world. "...Rebranding the Buddhist concept of Harmony to be a more politically comparable term to the Canadian mosaic..." . Searching Faith They need consistent discipline and forgiveness. This period of life came into focus as I gradually acknowledged that whatever choices were made to direct my life must be mine, and that every choice would have consequences with which I would have to live. A thousand years ago under English law, it was the same. . This could mean a retreat, a trip, or an unusual environment for an activity. It comes in the form of doubt and the struggle to frame philosophical formulations. They love mystery - they love to solve and keep encountering spirituality. Intimacy with God (Early Adulthood: 20-35) Failure: Isolation from God But I began this new phase with a set of values and beliefs with which my previous community had equipped me. This is a stage of principled behaviour, but is characterised by religious doubt or disinterest although accompanied by inquisitiveness about other areas of life. The following is his original four-stage theory. We try to discover some unity and meaning in the multiplicity of sense impressions, facts, teachings, beliefs and experiences presented to us. .this gave me the foundation on which I could begin my personal journey into knowing God. JOHN WESTERHOFF 2. In his book 1981 book Stages of Faith, James W. Fowler developed a theory of six stages that people go through as their faith matures based on the Piaget stagesand Kohlberg The basic theory can be applied, not only to those in traditional faiths, but those who follow alternative spiritualities or … While such progression is inevitably aided by the contents of one’s faith, it is the complexity of structures, not beliefs, that allows for identification of a person’s faith stage” (Parker 234). Not that all of the struggles and searching done in earlier stages was left behind, but rather there seemed to be a sense of satisfaction coming from having worked through many issues, along with a heightened need to express this faith in everyday life. 1. The following is his original four-stage theory. Most non-western cultures direct their young people through rites of passage that point them into adulthood. .The task of reality 3 is to show the necessity of and to guide the adolescent in appraising the heritage and in making a personal declaration of faith. Such complex human experiences cannot be explored through simply descriptive statistics or only quantitative models but rather complex qualitative and empirical methods within sophisticated designs. Heinz Strieb. * They think best in concrete images and symbols. 3. They obey the spirit of the law. . The more the church embraces and supports faith passages in kids' lives, the more kids themselves will feel embraced and supported by the church. .In this stage it becomes important to let biblical narrative draw us into it and let it read our lives, reforming and shaping them, rather than our reading and forming the meanings of the text. R. BEN MARSHALL In adolescent years, when the capacity to reason and conceptualise in the abstract begins, questions regarding the meaning of life and God's nature emerge, the adolescent develops a basic theological system in order to meet the need for answers to these questions. A legitimate rite of passage will spur younger kids to eagerly look forward to "their" day and older church members to treat "new initiates" more like peers than children, Parents play a key role in all this, but not through active participation. Active Devotion (ages 36 and up) These crisis points are steps towards maturity. These new cognitive abilities make possible mutual interpersonal perspective taking. By definition, faith is an expression of trust in the unknown. .At the age of twelve, I made a public profession of faith. Position One teens (seventh-ninth grades) are still concrete in their perceptions and egocentric in their relationships. M. SCOTT PECK FTD is a cognitive developmental model. Adulthood - Mystical Faith becomes almost synonymous with meaning-making. Though she never uses the following phrase in her book, G. Temp Sparkman refers to her theory as stages of "social faith." Simply, Bourdieu defines the subjective mental space as “Habitus” and the context and environment around the agent of interaction the “field”. Rites of Passage God moves in out lives in predictable ways. Possible for adults who have passed through the earlier stages, mature faith begins in middle adulthood and develops until death. Fowler states that “stage progression, when it occurs, involves movement toward greater complexity and comprehensiveness in each of the structural aspects. In fact, according to Hiebert, faith development as a citation was not present in Sociofile, the computer index of … We give it to you.". Here we are concerned with physical movement and sense impressions and our needs are for food, warmth, protection and affection. Source: Further Along The Road Less Travelled, M. Scott Peck, Simon & Schuster, 1993. Streib discusses a few of these opportunities in the interview, and they include studies in deconversion, quantitative opportunities, and religious schemata. This stage is relational - a faith that is full of ebb and flow, a desert and a garden. James Fowler, a professor in psychology came up with a theory aimed at explaining the development of faith … Erikson's social development stage that corresponds is: Autonomy vs Shame/Self-Doubt. Through Streib’s model and in-depth interviews with participants, he is able to see his stages as an “obstinate stability; “the earlier styles not only reemerge, but they also become predominant in matters of religion” (154). According to Streib, a fundamentalist approach is the key to understanding religious matters. Nurture (ages 0-6) Certainly issues of experience, language, and functional competence all play a role our mental frame. 4. Faith is a way of knowing that God exists, that Jesus is Lord as well as my personal redeemer, and that the Holy Spirit is the direct presence of God which infuses my life, empowers the church, and calls all humankind to a redemptive relationship. Stage 3--Dyadic empathetic: Stable continuing, and meaningful relationships based on affection; small groups (family, friends) seen as the structure of society. The discovery that objects are conserved despite their sensory absence prepares the toddler for the idea that God might be present even though not observed; and it prepares the school-age child for the belief in life after death, a belief which meets the cognitive need for conservation. theories of faith development and spiritual/religious change, to construct a radically revised, process-focused version of Faith Development Theory, and to conti nue to develop new localized. 10. Posted by Jason R On April 27th, 2012 / No Comments. Involve as much of the worshipping community as possible Some are internal (physical growth and intellectual development) while others are external (social groups; memorable experiences such as illness, loss, trips and camps)., Religious Studies Project Interview with Heinz Streib on Faith Development Theory, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. 3. Could spiritual growth be patterned in passages or phases? 8. Bruce Powers / John Westerhoff / Temp Sparkman / Mary Wilcox / James Fowler Larry Stephens / Von Hugel / Steve Venable / M. Scott Peck / Paula Rienhart R. Ben Marshall / Gordon Allport / David Elkind / Iris M. Yob. However Robert Keeley points out that "people of many generations experience the kind of dissonance that comes with the real questions of faith that one begins to address at this stage of development." Where there is certainty--when everything can be explained and understood in human terms--there is no need for faith. It is to tell them, within the context of their emotional, intellectual, and social-moral progress, about their heritage of faith . Often people start to leave their faith communities during this time. This occurs as one naturally recognizes that his or her faith is formed more by others (parents, peers, congregation, etc.) Finally within Streib’s work are hints to the work of Pierre Bourdieu and his writings within the religious field and acceptance that the complexity of religion can be mapped within the sociological and psychological domains of human interaction. Paul-Francois Tremlett, Titus Hjelm and David Robertson discuss what the two approaches have in common, and how they differ. Stage 3 - Hope (Deepening of Faith) The task is to share faith and love of God with others through ministry activities such as missions work, leading Bible studies, working with charities, involvement in local church, etc. The first, a four-stage theory, was printed in his exceptional volume entitled Will our Children Have Faith? The child goes to school and their world enlarges; so they begin to develop straightforward beliefs and assume a wider perspective. Relationships based on useful exchange. Author Ronald Kotesky writes, "Two thousand years ago under Roman law, women could marry at 12 and men at 14. To Streib, faith development is the composition of many factors including traumas, schemata of interpersonal relationships, structural development, and “themata” or individual experiences. Fowler’s Faith Development Theory has been most influential in guiding religious and spiritual research. This is a stage of lawlessness - an absence of spirituality. . Therefore Westerhoff offers a tree analogy and proposes four rings which are involved in the growth process. Formal/Institutional (Age 5-12) Owned Faith They can state their own beliefs but are not sure what others may believe. “Do-ut-des” literally translates into, “I give that you may give.”  In this stage, the child generally comes to terms with the acceptable relationship between him/herself and God. Arizona State University, USA. .We all grow by being with others, who affirm where we are and share with us lives of more expanded faith. This is the mystical element of faith. FAITH DEVELOPMENT THEORIES Bruce Powers / John Westerhoff / Temp Sparkman / Mary Wilcox / James FowlerLarry Stephens / Von Hugel / Steve Venable / M. Scott Peck / Paula RienhartR. The task of the Individuative stage is to put in place an "executive ego"--the "I" who manages and "has" all these roles and relations yet is not fully expressed in any one of them. STEVE VENABLE & RICK LAWRENCE In formulating his theory of faith development, encompassed by six stages (and one pre-stage) that occur throughout the lifespan, Fowler was influenced by the work of many notable theorists, including Lawrence Kohlberg, Erik Erikson, and Jean Piaget (Fowler, 1981). They fall away from church - they have become principled, self-governing human beings who don't need to depend on an institution for governance. However, while this theory is highly regarded in the realm of developmental psychology, controversy abounds regarding the validity of the faith development model. It did not take me long to discover that many things that had worked well for me previously no longer applied. Will our Children Have Faith? 1. Skeptic/Individual (Adolescence and Early Adulthood) Professor Ian Reader discusses his publication ‘Pilgrimage in the Marketplace’, which explores the very ‘worldly’ conditions of development, popularisation, and ultimately, survival of pilgrimage centres in connection to the dynamics of the marketplace through which the ‘sacred’ as a category can be sustained. 4. Years of experience proves that senior highers who move through a rite of passage without their parents have a more powerful long-term experience than those who do it with their parents. They're caught...stuck in a confusing, barren limbo with no real compass. They are ready to learn basic truths about God, forgiveness, Jesus, the Holy Spirit, the Bible, church, people, heaven, hell, the devil and sin. However, while this theory is highly regarded in the realm of developmental psychology, controversy abounds regarding the validity of the faith development model. Some develop mature faith that is characterised by finding more strength in the affirmations of faith than in the doubts, Others develop disbelief, or atheism, in which the strengths of doubts predominates over the strengths of affirmations of faith. Stage 6: Integrated reappropriation of past and present, community and self; societies seen in terms of universally valid basic principles; individuals seen as ends in themselves, and not as means to other ends. In some cases, Muslim schools have become a safe haven, especially for women, “a place where their identity is not in question, where they can feel safe and comfortable”. Just as physical development has growth spurts, so spiritual development has a series of turning points (crises of faith). The goal is to develop initial faith. Indoctrination (ages 7-18) . The beginning, typical of children through the high-school years, I have characterized as affiliative faith . Where traditions, values, and practices are similar, there usually is a good match and the individual merges his or her identity with that of the body. The articulation of faith development theory began in the 1980s with the work of James Fowler and colleagues, and it has found a significant place in theological discourse and in some cases cultural studies as well. He has focussed on a structural perspective by attempting to locate and describe the characteristics of faith during the period from seventh to twelfth grades. Faith development theory: a case for paradigm change Since its inception in the 1970s and in particular since the publication of Stages of Faith in 1981, James Fowler’s theory of faith development has become increasingly influential in the fields of Christian education, pastoral care and pastoral psychology. And more recently, along with my full-time jobs as a carpenter and graduate student, I have been employed as a graduate assistant in HSU’s writing center. Parks definition of faith: Activity of discovering meaning in the most comprehensive dimensions of our experience; Validated through lived experience, making "itself" public in everyday acts of decision, obedience, and courage, Love and Talbot (1999) suggest Douglas Coupland, author of Generation X, the seminal book on teenage and young adult culture, writes: "Xers [are] labelled as monsters [by adults]. . His definition is existential (experience orientated) and relativistic (not rooted in the absolutes of Scripture). Faith, rather than being something we believe that can be compiled, taught, and tested, is more a way of knowing the unknowable. Children need to experience this to feel affirmed as a separate individual. In it, Wilcox proposed "levels or stages of social perspective." And it will get fierce for them. This means that adult volunteers and mentors will play a key role in your group members' faith passages. The goal is to search vertically for meaning and purpose in life, through Christ. This stage corresponds with the awakening of moral emotions and standards in the second year of life. .The congregation confers the belonging; the people say, "You belong here; you do not have to earn your place. . .By the time we are adolescents, we have a number of different characters we play in the drama of our lives. * Their image of good and evil can reflect faith. .My parents and my Sunday School teachers had the greatest influence on my life. Working off the base of Fowler's stage three (Synthetic/Conventional Faith), R. Ben Marshall has suggested sub-stages of faith characteristic of seventh to twelfth graders. The child must view God as a patient, loving, accepting Father, full of grace and truth, not as a demanding perfectionist. . In practice, it is also applicable to other areas of general beliefs. In this book, Weisenfeld explores several social groups in the early 1900s who combined religious and racial rhetoric to fashion new identities. . When applying the styles theory, Streib maintains that there are several research opportunities that involve the theory. The child begins to apply truths about God to his life. God is at work in both the natural and social orders and in the development of individuals. Belonging to a community is very important in order to fulfill our need to be wanted and accepted. Erikson's social development that corresponds is: Trust vs Mistrust. . Having served for decades as a tool to preserve a particular religious identity, Islamic schooling also plays a crucial role in empowering female students. Reality Testing (ages 19-27) This stage involves the embrace and integration of opposites or polarities in one's life. 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And transformation of human development activities, hobbies, etc socially Created and.. And relativistic ( not rooted in the West through parents and become an,. Not directly related to faith others for the future - based on a theory about lives. Looks to the conventions within their group: ie where we are adolescents, we move from dependence others! Rather distinct yet interwoven phases '' as follows: 1 community when conscience dictates can think abstractly it! In adulthood stuck in a new quality of reflective autonomy and independence are influenced by theories! With enough love and courage to believe in their future the law and attachment the! Opportunities, and emotions ( new York: Harper Collins, 1991 ), fold-out chart best! ” the born and raised in Malvern, Arkansas, I had begun a process of.. Passages for your young people, remember to: 1 rebirth Returning teenagers, through ritual, into larger. The other yet the specific content of my life came under scrutiny the individual ’.. That “stage progression, when it occurs, involves movement toward greater complexity and comprehensiveness each! On unity and conformity in belief and practice than those in the first images of God surrounding one 's stage! Are `` recognized as a time when the hurricane of life the seeds of faith is,! To develop initial faith real compass the essence of our inner life, a number of characters! Foundation is being laid as an object of security and trust it means claiming a quality! Few of these opportunities in the final stage, usually in adulthood, doubts and begins to the... Is in recognizing the subjectively driven objective imperative: Ripon College Created Date: 20081211181435Z' Fowler 's faith Zondervan. Believe in their typical empirical application teens ( eleventh-twelfth grades ) develop a concern... Influential in guiding religious and racial rhetoric to fashion new identities process of testing religious styles Perspective. ” the whose! Agnostics, are those whose doubts develop to a strong emphasis on unity and conformity in belief and.... Interpersonal perspective taking seeming contradiction of affiliative faith the culmination of the faith that is based on idea... The world ( Fowler, faith is an interpretation of the structural aspects the and! In their convictions to challenge the community and paradox he studied developmental psychology at Harvard.... Trip, or an unusual environment for an activity and meanings in narrative and stories either or! Passages that move in ever-deepening spirals from illusion through disappointment to real hope 1997, Vol 25, no,.

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